|Tamás Esze (Tarpa, 1666 - Nyitra, 27 May 1708)
A kuruc brigadier of serf origin. He tried to organize a peasant uprising
against the Hapsburgs in 1695, and participated m the preparation of the
"Hegyalja" kuruc uprising in 1797, in which he eventually did not take part
because he had been caught and imprisoned by then.
Tamás Esze (Tarpa, 1666 - Nyitra, 27 May 1708)
After his release, he dealt
with the trading of salt. After his conflict with the officers in charge of salt
In Tiszaújlak (1701), he was hiding Iii the woods of the Upper-Tisza region. It
was then that he againt met Albert Kiss, a vehement and loud man who escaped
from the Várad prison. (Kis had been the second lieutenant of Thököly's
infantry, and had been imprisoned along with Esze in 1695. He had also been a
member of the delegation that went to Rákóczi before the war. Owing to his
untamable character, however, Rákóczi had him executed in 1704.) Upon their
return from Brezán, Tamás Esze and his fellows read out Rákóczi's proclamation
in Tarpa, Vári, and Beregszász, and called the unsatisfied people of the country
Tamás Esze and Ferenc II. Rákóczi meeting (painting)
Tamás Esze was present at - the defeat at Dolha, from where he went to
the Verecke Pass with his comrades. Ferenc Rákóczi II. appointed him commander
of a regiment. Esze and his regiment took part in every major battle of the war.
He was appointed brigadier
by Rákóczi In 1707 as an honour for his achievements, and in 1708, he was given
noble rank. His death came unexpected: at Whitsun in 1708, a fight was started
between Catholic and Protestant soldiers, and when Esze tried to stop them, the
crowd was gunned on superior order, and Esze suffered fatal injuries. His
loyalty, merits and persistence were acknowledged by Rákóczi by promoting
Eszes's regiment to his own courtiers.
"Kuruc-labanc" combating (painting)
|The DRY-MILL at Tarpa
In the old time the place was called „Mező-Tarpa” which name is
still used by the older people. The people of TARPA under the command of Tamás
ESZE joined first the freedom-fight lead by prince RAKOCZI. The prince was
generous for this and gave many special right for TARPA. The famous past of the
village is kept by some architectural memorials only. One of the industrial
memorial of this many streeted and large settlement is the horse drown, dry
mill. The intensive agriculture has got started at the begining of the 18TH
century. The increasing grain production resulted in
building of many grain milling dry-mills. The dry-mills in HUNGARY were built in
he middle age, mainly in the areas lacking water. in many places the dry mills
were lined up in one street (i.e. Kecskemét, Cegléd). Before the XIXTH
century the milling industry was a kind of folk
industry. The mills were built by mill-carpanters who passed their mastery of
mill-building from generation to generation. The dry mill was one of the centre
of social life. While the farmers were waiting for their turn they have planty
of time to talk. They have discussed the local events, weather and farming. The
mill was respected and thought highly and it was not a place for smoking,
swearing and shouting. In the beginning of the XIX-XX. centuries the steam-mills
took over the role of dry-mills. The mill of TARPA did milling for the last time
(...any further... )
village lies straight along the Ukrainian border, on the Eastern brink of
Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg county. Its land area is 49.76 square kilometres, and
with this, it is the largest of the community settlements in the region of
Bereg-Tiszahat. In the South, it is bordering on the Tisza and its catchment
area, with the river meandering along its borderline at a length of 12.3
km, while it is embraced by the water of the Szipa in the West and in the North.
One of the two hills in the county rises along the border of the village, which
lies at an elevation of 110-112 metres over the sea-level. This is the Nagy-hegy
(Large-hill) (154 metres), a volcanic cone of andesite, covered in loess.
(Large-hill) (154 metres)
In the X-XIII centuries, this area was covered by gallery
forests, where rich recd-grass, moor and marsh vegetation was abounding along
the rivers and backwaters. The landscape was transformed after the field- and
agricultural activities of the inhabitants, and their river regulating and
flood protection activities started in the middle of the XIX century. The
gallery forests became scarce, and arable land, grassland as well as the
pastures of the flood areas covered bigger and bigger areas of land. In spite of
all this, one of the cultures in Hungary can still be found here that basically
stayed untouched. The most beautiful stock of ash-elm gallery-forests is the Tébforest lying South-East from the
Large-Hill, and the Old-Oak forest further
to the North. Both of them are ancient forest remains (with 120-130 year old
oak-trees) of hornbeam-oak trees where even the Carpathian crocus, a rare
sub-Alpine plant from the Carpathians can be found.
The stone tools found at the foot of the Large-hill can mean
that man settled in this region as early as in the Mesozoic era, and has been
living here ever since that time as witnessed by archaeological relics (gold
relics from the Bronze Age, tumulus from the Early Iron Age). As a strategic
point, it was occupied by the Hungarians, who settled into the country at
exactly this point at the end of the IX century. This is proven by the
preserved parts of the female tomb from the age of the Hungarian Settlement,
found on the Large-hill.
Tarpa was first mentioned in charters in 1299. At this time,
its parish church erected for Saint Andrew was already complete. It was the
estate of the Hungarian queens, and part of the adjacent domain of Munkacevo
until 1395. Its owners introduced some Hungarian settlers (hospes) to increase
the number of inhabitants in the village. They have come down in history due to
their brute force used against the landowners of the neighbouring villages. In
1410, King Sigismund donated half of the village to Albert Nagymihalyi, his
court page, who later became a church baron, a Croatian ban. The other half was
inherited by the Báthories through the female line. These latter ones pulled
down the Romanesque style church of the village in the first half of the XV
century, and built a new one in a I Gothic style, decorating it with frescos. At
that time, the number of the population might have been around 480, which meant
that the village was one of the largest communities in the vicinity.
Village center: Tamás Esze statue,
civil-masterly office, church, primary school, kindergarden
The village - due to its seclusion - was not affected by the
Turkish-Hungarian wars in the XVI-XVII centuries, however the frequent change of
its landowners had a major impact on it. After the Bathories died out, the serfs
living on this estate of the Transylvanian dukes, dealing with trading and
commercial activities, were exempted from customs duties. In 1665, Leopold I.
even endowed a right of holding fairs onto Tarpa. Out of its landowners, Zsófia
Bathori left a very bad memory behind. She wanted to re-convert the population,
converted to the Reformed faith in the middle of the XVI century, back to the
Catholic religion forcefully around 1670.
The most victorious years of the community were those of the
freedom ; fight (1703-1711) led by Ferenc Rákócsz II, Transylvanian duke.
Esze, one of the organisers of the armed revolt against the Habsburgs, was born
in Tarpa. As a reward for his merits and those of his soldiers from Tarpa, the
Duke vested the village with the right of the Heyducks in 1708, which meant that
the people only owed him as their landlord military service.
Tamás Esze (Tarpa, 1666 - Nyitra, 27
Although this privilege faded away after the freedom fight,
and was not confirmed by the king, the new landlords, the Károlyies appreciated
the situation that had been created earlier until 1850. The people of Tarpa did
not have to toil, and pursuant to a contract concluded every third year, they
could redeem the services to the landlord, and the tithe to the king for money.
The village slotted between the villages of the Bereg, and belonging to Szatmar
county from the XVI century, was attached to Bereg county in 1836, where it used
to belong in the Middle Ages.
The Peace Treaty of Trianon, as a closing act of the First
World War brought another significant change in the life of Tarpa. This Treaty
drew the Czechoslovakian-Hungarian border on the Eastern edge of the village,
cutting it off from its natural market, Beregovo and Munkacevo. The village, as
the largest community with almost four thousand inhabitants, that remained on
the Hungarian side, was the capital town of the incomplete Bereg county between
1920 and 1924, hosting several offices. The poverty between the two world wars,
and an intention to remedy it encouraged Endre Bajcsy-Zsilinszky, a highly
honoured politician of this era to stand for the parliamentary elections here in
1931. After one cycle, however, violence was used to make the candidate of the
government party win again in 1935. The politician executed in 1944 was buried -
in line with his will - in the graveyard of his beloved Reformed people in Tarpa.
At the end of the second World War, after the Russian front
moved quickly away, on November 21, 1944 all the male population between 18 and
50 of the Bereg part between the border of the country and the Tisza were
carried off to the Soviet Union for "malenkij robot". Around four-hundred and
fifty men were taken away from Tarpa, from whom hardly more than a hundred
returned from Russia. On August 16, 1945, the Ukrainian militia occupied the
village, and the national committee of the intimidated village was forced to
sign their annexation by the Ukraine. The militia instructed by the Allied
Control Commission to move out after weeks, almost fully plundered the village.
The authors of the book describe the history of the village
in detail until 1990 with the history of its Reformed church from 1593 until our
days, as well as the foundation of the schools and their teachers. Woodworking,
which may be traced back to the XVII century, has a separate chapter assigned to
it, and the monuments of folk architecture, preserved in a high number are also
compiled: Peter Nemet
The region of the rivers Tisza and Szamos at the border of the
Great Plain, at the foots of the Carpathian mountains was already a popular
dwelling area for the first Magyar settlers of Hungary. The ownership of the
territory has changed too often during the stormy history of the country. After
the devastation by the Tartars and the Turks, the Treaty of Trianon, closing the
First World War for Hungary, brought along another tragic turning point. The
region was tom into three parts; one was annexed by the Soviet Union, another by
Romania. The region, which had been rather poor and backward, came to a
Trianon peace-treaty on account of three division rained Hungary
The first act about the building of dams was issued in 1613 and in
the 1 770’s the regulating of the Tisza began. But the devastating floods of the
unpredictable river kept falling on Szatmár and Bereg. I myself have personal
experiences in connection with the dramatic events of the flood of 1970 and the
large-scale reconstruction that followed. 7,000 homes were damaged then. The
constructors did not care the least about architectural traditions. The new
houses with their cubic blocks, tent-shaped roofs and dismal frontals made the
villages look even poorer.
the 1970 engineered tent-top houses
The people of the villages ruined by the flood of
2001 were afraid that the same might happen again. Their fear soon vanished, as
renowned Hungarian architects prepared two hundred plans reflecting the past and
traditions of the region. However, only the layouts reflect the past, as the
house were built from modern materials and units. The consortium responsible for
the reconstruction worked hard for months.
ISOBAU RT built 71 new homes for the
victims of the flood in 22 villages in Szatmár and Bereg. They restored 337
private homes and 37 damaged municipal buildings. The company also renovated 13
churches and 5 historic buildings. The reconstruction of the Bereg area proved
to be more than just the rebuilding of the villages: a complex area-development
programme. 60 billion HUF flowed unto the villages that had been disregarded for
decades. New roads, nursery and primary schools, community centres, sports
fields, surgeries, social institutions, homes for the elderly and parsonages
emerged. ISOBAU RT took part in these as well, building an old people’s home and
a care centre in the damaged villages.
Social Nursing Center
Bereg has been reborn. And like a baby,
it develops, grows bigger and richer day by day. The reconstruction was not
merely a philantropic act, it was also an investment. The billions spent on
rehabilitation further a noble cause, moreover, it is hoped that they can set
off a long-awaited self-development. Now is the time to move our financial and
intellectual assets. Because there arc great treausures in this land. The
ancient scenery by the Tisza is beautiful, the brandy and the jam made from the
plums of Szatmár, just like the honey, arc real Hungarian specialities, the
apples arc succulent. The folkweave of Bereg is world-famous. The little
churches and bell cages arc real gems.
The people arc modest, open and friendly....
source: Tímea Tatár: I'm not spilt.
The flood of the new century.
|The flood of the new century
On the first Sunday of
March 2001 the high-water mark of the River Tisza raised meters in a few hours.
In the Sub-Carpathian watershed area an amount of precipitation equivalent to a
month’ s average had fallen within two days, the snow had started to melt
suddenly, which resulted in flood waves that had been without compare in the
Barrier raining pre moments
The flood threatened
29,500 people in 29 dwellings in the Bereg region in North-East Hungary. Defence
works started with great forces. The dams were reinforced with one million
sandbags in one day. More than ten thousand people were fighting the water on
the dikes. On 6th March the water flooded the villages near the River Túr
unexpectedly. The flood swept down upon the Hungarian villages after bursting
the dikes in Ukraine. The same afternoon another disaster fell on the region.
The river broke through the dams at two points near the village of Tarpa, ciose
to the point where the reinforcement works of the dams had had to he stopped for
the winter in the previous December. The last bursting of a dam in Hungary had
happened 20 years before.
Barrier raining's moment 06. March 2001.(Tuesday) 13 o'clock 30 minute
The settlements were
flooded by 140 million cubic metres of water. In 24 hours nearly 20,000
inhabitants of 20 villages had to be evacuated or rescued. Seven villages were
swamped in a few hours. The houses were standing in I ‚5-metres-deep water at
many places. The main road crossing the Bereg hollows could not take a stand
against the pressure of the water any more.
Apart washed barrier division
The flooded station (Tarpa)
On Wednesday evening
the road had to be cross-cut at two points. Further villages were flooded. The
water swept away the roads, too; many villages could only be approached on the
top of the soggy dams. The old adobe houses collapsed one after the other. Homes
of hundreds, the heritage of the Bereg region were lost. 181 houses were
destroyed by the flood at once. 2870 buildings n 43 settlements were damaged,
700 of which caved in, 1,200 were damaged seriously and became perilous to live
in. By the end of March 472 families, nearly 1,500 people found themselves
homeless. The government immediately decided to undertake the costs of
reconstruction, which was estimated to be 23 billion HUF based on the first
damage surveys. In order to carry out the reconstruction works, a consortium was
formed by six renowned Hungarian construction companies, three of which was from
the very region. The plans of the houses to be built were prepared by reputed
architects, taking good care of saving the style of the folk architecture of the
Bereg region in their new works. The foundation of the first house was laid in
Tákos in May and the first one was finished here as well in the middle of June.
Most of the victims of the flood were waiting for their new houses to be built
or the old ones to be renovated in tents, farm buildings and container-houses.
At the end of August, during the most intensive phase of the reconstruction,
nearly three thousand people were living in such unfavourable circumstances.
Meanwhile, the number of houses to be demolished kept growing, more and more
houses proved to be irrecoverable. 979 houses had to be demolished altogether.
The government added an extra ten billion HUF to the funds allocated to the
reconstruction of the Bereg region. The consortium built 714 houses and
renovated another 1,500 homes. The reconstruction and renovation of municipal
buildings, churches and other ecclesiastical properties and historic buildings
meant further tasks. 5,214 victims of the flood could spend the Christmas of
2001 in their new or renewed homes.
New house series
source: Tímea Tatár: I'm not spilt.
The flood of the new century.
|The Coat-of-Arms of the Village of Tarpa (The County of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg)
Shield erect. Its legend reads as follows: SIGILLUM OPPIDI PRIVILEGIATI
HAJDONICALIS TARPA (The seal of the privileged Haiduk town of Tarpa). In field
azure three ears of wheat are issuing from the ground, above it an eagle sable
is borne, abaisé. The bird’s head is decorated with a baronial crown, in its
raised dexter claw it is holding a sword, in the sinister claw another sword and
a gun, borne crosswise. Around the shield, in accordance with the inscription,
an oak wreath, tied with a ribbon gules at the bottom.
|We welcome you in Tarpa!
a pleasure for us to have you browsing our brand new homepage! You probably
didn't hear much about this village, therefore we've made these pages for you to
get more information. We hope you'll enjoy this journey with us, and maybe
you'll visit us once in the near future!
|Natural values of Tarpa and its surroundings
"…Boundary of Tarpa is partly loamy, partly
black soil, not demanding too much droughts or too much rain, it is applicable
for farming just in temperate weather. On meadows yields good hay, nice orchards
beside the Tisza. The Nagy-forest - with a rocky hill, planted with layers and
cherry- is owned by the
town, and the water of the Szipa is flowing just
beside it, coming from the Borsava"
ELEK: Georaphical Dictionary of Hungary, 1851)
Beside the settlement lies the Nagy-forest and the Téb-forest
with the extension of alltogether roundly thousand hectares. Main stocks are the
hornbeam-oak woodlands and hardwood gallery forests. They can be visited
just with permission as they are strictly protected!
The nicest part of the Nagy-forest is the about 10 hectares
of „ancient-oaks" with some twohundred-year-old giant trees. At the end of
winter flowers in the Téb-forest the Carpathian crocus, which lives just here on
The underwood of the hornbeam-oak woodlands and the the old
gallery forests contains flowering highland greenery as they like this place
thanks to the cool climate. These are like Scilla kladnii, Isopyrum, wild
ginger. At the edges of the forest cornflag and snakeshead lily
The cone of the 156 m high Nagy-hill is the second highest
point of the Bereg-Szatmár Plain and the Great Plain after the Kaszony-hill. Its
surface is covered by loess coat of different width. Its original wooded
vegetation - according to the growth of viniculture and former rock mining -
disappeared. On the abandoned yard of the mine several typical flowers took
refuge: all of them are inhabitants of the one-time hilltop's original
vegetation. Windhover is nestling in the side of the rock and in the loess wall
coloured european beeeaters dig caves to nest in.
On the south slope of
the hill press-houses form line among grape-parcels. Some of them are national
monuments as several houses of the settlement also got this rank, like the trim
building of the operable dry mill.
We should mention
the ground-beetle of the Bereg, as a native insect of the area. The presence of
the common viper calls for caution!
|General characterization of the Landscape Protection Area
In 1982 an interesting
,valuable, diverse world got the nature protection clause on the Bereg-Szatmár
Plain. The field of the landscape protection area is mosaic structured, and
contains only part of the natural values.
(Picture: Zsolt Vicze)
The most ancient
witness of the history of the landscape is the Kaszony-hill beside Barabás
settlement and the volcanic cone of the Nagy-hill of Tarpa. Both of them are
about 10-11 million years old, their flora and fauna are very special, differs
from the North-Plain substantially.
The whole landscape is very rich in living and dead waters.
Main rivers are the Tisza, the Szamos and the Tur. Beside them dozens of onetime
creeks, about the same number of ox-bow lakes and myriads of more or less
filled-up bed-sections, left here by the abovementioned rivers can be found on
the area. In the remainders of the ancient dead bed-sections stood out the
thousands of years the peat-bogs, which are unique in Hungary: Nyires-lake, Bab-lake
and Bence-lake. All of these bogs are strictly protected, can be visited just
with permission! The alder bogs closed in the forests are much more young. Under
their clear water black, sinking bolster can be found. This is the origin of the
name of the Csaronda - means'black water'which is an important creek on the
At time of settlement of the Hungarians there the forests
were almost closed. The remainders can be still found on the area although they
were thinned radically. Near to the rivers vegetate riparian willowpoplar
woodlands and on higher places oak-ash-elm woodlands. More far from waters
hornbeam-oak forests can be found and in one of these there are beech trees!
In the bigger forest blocks of the Bereg-Szatmár Plain
occurance of the common viper is not a rarity. During the centuries
inhabitants used the meadows - evolved through the clear-cutting of the forests
- as pasture or hayfield, but these were the habitats of more grassland-realated
species. One of them is the corncrake which is nestling on wet grasslands
and is a strictly protected moving bird. A substantial value of the landscape -
a native bug: ground-beetle of the Bereg likes dry forest edges more. The
mosaic land structure of the countryside is the result of the colours of
forest spots, wooded pastures, ox-bow lakes and agricultural lands.
picture: Béla Habarics)
Wooded pastures and extended grasslands give
particular landscape experience. Very few places there are the wild-seeded
socalled jungle-orchards can be seen which guard many species as natural
Priceless treasures of cultural history are the 55 - contains
37 from the middle-ages - temples with painted interiors, the 16 beautiful wood
bellfries, the mansions and parks of the one-time nobles, the cemetry of
Szatmarcseke with idol-headstones, the operable water-mill of Turistvándi,
the famous dry mill of Tarpa, the nice carved well sweeps, ethnic
architecture and the slowly vanishing traditions which should be preserved in
this country as there are nothing similar all over the world!